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Questions and Answers about Alopecia Areata
This publication contains general information about alopecia areata (al-oh-PEE-shah ar-ee-AH-tah). It describes what alopecia areata is, its causes, and treatment options. Information is also provided on current research. At the end is a list of key words to help you understand the terms in this publication. If you have further questions after reading this publication, you may wish to discuss them with your doctor.
Alopecia areata is just one cause of alopecia, or hair loss. This publication deals only with alopecia areata.
What Is Alopecia Areata?
Alopecia areata is considered an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system, which is designed to protect the body from foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria, mistakenly attacks the hair follicles, the structures from which hairs grow. This can lead to hair loss on the scalp and elsewhere.
In most cases, hair falls out in small, round patches about the size of a quarter. In many cases, the disease does not extend beyond a few bare patches. In some people, hair loss is more extensive. Although uncommon, the disease can progress to cause total loss of hair on the scalp (referred to as alopecia areata totalis) or complete loss of hair on the scalp, face, and body (alopecia areata universalis).
In alopecia areata, immune system cells called white blood cells attack the rapidly growing cells in the hair follicles. The affected hair follicles become small and drastically slow down hair production. Fortunately, the stem cells that continuously supply the follicle with new cells do not seem to be targeted. So the follicle always has the potential to regrow hair.
Scientists do not know exactly why the hair follicles undergo these changes, but they suspect that a combination of genes may predispose some people to the disease. In those who are genetically predisposed, some type of trigger—perhaps a virus or something in the person’s environment—brings on the attack against the hair follicles.
Alopecia areata affects nearly 2 percent of Americans of both sexes and of all ages and ethnic backgrounds. It often begins in childhood.
If you have a close family member with the disease, your risk of developing it is slightly increased. If your family member lost his or her first patch of hair before age 30, the risk to other family members is greater.
Alopecia areata is not a life-threatening disease. It does not cause any physical pain, and people with the condition are generally healthy otherwise. But for most people, a disease that unpredictably affects their appearance the way alopecia areata does is a serious matter.
The effects of alopecia areata are primarily socially and emotionally disturbing. In alopecia universalis, however, loss of eyelashes and eyebrows and hair in the nose and ears can make the person more vulnerable to dust, germs, and foreign particles entering the eyes, nose, and ears.
Alopecia areata often occurs in people whose family members have other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, pernicious anemia, or Addison’s disease. People who have alopecia areata do not usually have other autoimmune diseases, but they do have a higher occurrence of thyroid disease, atopic eczema, nasal allergies, and asthma.
It is possible for alopecia areata to be inherited. However, most children with alopecia areata do not have a parent with the disease, and the vast majority of parents with alopecia areata do not pass it along to their children.
Alopecia areata is not like some genetic diseases in which a child has a 50–50 chance of developing the disease if one parent has it. Scientists believe that there may be a number of genes that predispose certain people to the disease. It is highly unlikely that a child would inherit all of the genes needed to predispose him or her to the disease.
Even with the right (or wrong) combination of genes, alopecia areata is not a certainty. Studies suggest that in identical twins, who share all of the same genes, the concordance rate is only 55 percent. In other words, if one twin has the disease, there is only a 55-percent chance that the other twin will have it as well. This shows that other factors besides genetics are required to trigger the disease.
There is every chance that your hair will regrow with or without treatment, but it may also fall out again. No one can predict when it might regrow or fall out. The course of the disease varies from person to person. Some people lose just a few patches of hair, then the hair regrows, and the condition never recurs. Other people continue to lose and regrow hair for many years. A few lose all the hair on the scalp; some lose all the hair on the scalp, face, and body. Even in those who lose all their hair, the possibility for full regrowth remains. The course of alopecia areata is highly unpredictable, and the uncertainty of what will happen next is probably the most difficult and frustrating aspect of the disease.
In some, the initial hair regrowth is white, with a gradual return of the original hair color. In most, the regrown hair is ultimately the same color and texture as the original hair.
Although there is neither a cure for alopecia areata nor drugs approved for its treatment, some people find that medications approved for other purposes can help hair grow back, at least temporarily. Keep in mind that although these treatments may promote hair growth, none of them prevent new patches or actually cure the underlying disease. Consult your health care professional about the best option for you. A combination of treatments may work best. Ask how long the treatment may last, how long it will take before you see results, and about the possible side effects.
In addition to treatments to help hair grow, there are measures that can be taken to minimize the effects of excessive sun exposure or discomforts of lost hair.
- Sunscreens are important for the scalp, face, and all exposed areas.
- Eyeglasses (or sunglasses) protect the eyes from excessive sun and from dust and debris when eyebrows or eyelashes are missing.
- Wigs, caps, or scarves protect the scalp from the sun and keep the head warm.
- An ointment applied inside the nostrils keeps them moisturized and helps to protect against organisms invading the nose when nostril hair is missing.
This is a common question, particularly for children, teens, and young adults who are beginning to form lifelong goals and who may live with the effects of alopecia areata for many years. The comforting news is that alopecia areata is not a painful disease and does not make people feel physically sick. It is not contagious, and people who have the disease are generally healthy otherwise. It does not reduce life expectancy, and it should not interfere with going to school, playing sports and exercising, pursuing any career, working, marrying, and raising a family.
The emotional aspects of living with hair loss, however, can be challenging. Many people cope by learning as much as they can about the disease, speaking with others who are facing the same problem, and, if necessary, seeking counseling to help build a positive self-image.
Although a cure is not imminent, researchers are making headway toward a better understanding of the disease. This increased understanding will likely lead the way to better treatments for alopecia areata and eventually a way to cure it or even prevent it.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other organizations support research into the disease and its treatment. Here are some promising areas of research:
- Developing animal models. This is a critical step toward understanding any disease, and much progress has been made. By studying mice with problems similar to those encountered in human alopecia areata, researchers hope to learn more about the mechanism of the disease and eventually develop treatments for the disease in people.
- Studying hair follicle development. By studying how hair follicles form, develop, and cycle through growth and resting phases, researchers hope to gain a better understanding of hair growth cycle biology that may lead to treatments for the underlying disease process.
- Understanding stem cell biology. Epithelial stem cells are immature cells that are responsible for regenerating and maintaining a variety of tissues, including the skin and the hair follicles. Stem cells in the follicle appear to be spared from injury in alopecia areata, which may explain why the potential for regrowth is always there in people with the disease. By studying the biology of these cells, scientists hope to gain a better understanding of factors that trigger the disease.
- Finding genes. Scientists have identified genetic variations associated with the development of alopecia areata. They also discovered that alopecia areata has genetic similarities to other autoimmune diseases, namely type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease. An understanding of the genetics of the disorder will aid in disease prevention, early intervention, and development of specific therapies. To assist researchers searching for such genetic clues, the NIAMS supported the development of the National Alopecia Areata Registry, a network of five centers, to identify and register patients with the disease and collect information and blood samples (which contain genes). Data, including genetic information, is made available to researchers studying the genetic basis and other aspects of the disease and disease risk. For more information, log onto the registry website at www.AlopeciaAreataRegistry.org.
More information on research is available from the following resources:
- NIH Clinical Research Trials and You helps people learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. Visitors to the website will find information about the basics of participating in a clinical trial, first-hand stories from clinical trial volunteers, explanations from researchers, and links on how to search for a trial or enroll in a research-matching program.
- ClinicalTrials.gov offers up-to-date information for locating federally and privately supported clinical trials for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
- NIH RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository of both intramural and extramural NIH-funded research projects from the past 25 years and access publications (since 1985) and patents resulting from NIH funding.
- PubMed is a free service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine that lets you search millions of journal citations and abstracts in the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and preclinical sciences.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
National Institutes of Health
If you need more information about available resources in your language or another language, please visit our website or contact the NIAMS Information Clearinghouse at NIAMSinfo@mail.nih.gov.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
National Institutes of Health
American Academy of Dermatology
National Alopecia Areata Foundation
American Hair Loss Council
Addison’s disease. A condition that occurs when the adrenal glands (a pair of glands situated on top of the kidneys) fail to secrete enough corticosteroid hormones. Without treatment, the disease can be fatal.
Alopecia areata. An autoimmune, often reversible disease in which loss of hair occurs in sharply defined areas usually involving the scalp or beard, but any area of the body where hair grows can be affected.
Alopecia areata totalis. A form of alopecia areata characterized by the total loss of hair on the scalp.
Alopecia areata universalis. A form of alopecia areata in which all hair on the scalp, face, and body is lost.
Autoimmune disease. A disease that results when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissues. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes are autoimmune diseases (“auto” means self).
Diabetes. A disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that is necessary to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy.
Hair follicle. A small, narrow, tube-like structure in the skin from which hair grows.
Immune system. A complex network of specialized cells and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by “foreign” invaders such as bacteria and viruses. In some autoimmune conditions, it appears that the immune system does not function properly and may attack the body’s own tissues by mistake.
Pernicious anemia. A potentially dangerous form of anemia, usually caused by an autoimmune process, which results in a deficiency of vitamin B12.
Rheumatoid arthritis. An autoimmune disease that targets primarily the membrane lining the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, swelling, and joint deformity.
Systemic lupus erythematosus. A chronic autoimmune disease of the connective tissue that can attack and damage the skin, joints, blood vessels, and internal organs.
The NIAMS gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following individuals in the preparation and review of previous versions of this publication: George Cotsarelis, M.D., University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA; Vicki Kalabokes, National Alopecia Areata Foundation, San Rafael, CA; Alan Moshell, M.D., NIAMS/NIH; and David Norris, M.D., University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO. A special acknowledgement goes to Vera Price, M.D., University of California, San Francisco, CA. Mary Anne Dunkin was the original author of a previous version of this publication.
The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH), is to support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. The NIAMS Information Clearinghouse is a public service sponsored by the NIAMS that provides health information and information sources. Additional information can be found on the NIAMS website at www.niams.nih.gov. Information on bone and its disorders can be obtained from the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center by calling toll free at 800–624–BONE (2663) or by visiting its website at www.bones.nih.gov.
For Your Information
This publication contains information about medications used to treat the health condition discussed here. When this publication was developed, we included the most up-to-date (accurate) information available. Occasionally, new information on medication is released.
For updates and for any questions about any medications you are taking, please contact
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
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For additional information on specific medications, visit Drugs@FDA at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda. Drugs@FDA is a searchable catalog of FDA-approved drug products.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics
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Additional copies of this publication are available from:
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
National Institutes of Health
NIH Publication No. 16-5143