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Scoliosis in Children and Teens

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/scoliosis

What is scoliosis? Scoliosis is a sideways curve of the spine. Children and teens with scoliosis have an abnormal S-shaped or C-shaped curve of the spine. The curve can happen on either side of the spine and in different places in the spine. With treatment, observation, and follow-up with the doctor, most children and teens with scoliosis have normal, active lives.

Reactive Arthritis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/reactive-arthritis

What is reactive arthritis? Reactive arthritis is pain or swelling in a joint that is caused by an infection in your body. You may also have red, swollen eyes and a swollen urinary tract. These symptoms may occur alone, together, or not at all. Most people with reactive arthritis recover fully from the first flare of symptoms and can return to regular activities 2 to 6 months later. Some people will have long-term, mild arthritis. A few patients will have long-term, severe arthritis that is difficult to control with treatment and may cause joint damage.

Osteonecrosis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteonecrosis

What is osteonecrosis? Your bones are made up of living cells that need a blood supply to stay healthy. In osteonecrosis, blood flow to part of a bone is reduced. This causes death of bone tissue, and the bone can eventually break down and the joint will collapse. Osteonecrosis can happen to any bone, but most often it develops in the ends of long bones, such as the: Thigh bone. Upper arm bone. Less often, the bones of the elbows, ankles, feet, wrists, and hands are affected. When the disease involves part of a bone in a joint, it can

Sjögren’s Syndrome

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sjogrens-syndrome

What is Sjögren’s syndrome? Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic (long-lasting) disorder that happens when the immune system attacks the glands that make moisture in the eyes, mouth, and other parts of the body. The main symptoms are dry eyes and mouth, but the disorder may affect other parts of the body. Many people with Sjogren’s syndrome say they feel tired often (fatigue). They also may have joint and muscle pain. In addition, the disease can damage the lungs, kidneys, and nervous system.

Sports Injuries

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sports-injuries

What are sports injuries? Sports injuries are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. There are two kinds of sports injuries: Acute injuries occur suddenly when playing or exercising. For example: Sprained ankles. Strained backs. Broken bones. Chronic injuries happen after you play a sport or exercise for a long time.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/ankylosing-spondylitis

What is ankylosing spondylitis? Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that causes inflammation in certain parts of the spine. Over time, this inflammation in the joints and tissues of the spine can cause stiffness. In severe cases, this may cause the bones in the spine to grow together, which can lead to a rigid spine that is difficult to bend. Many people with ankylosing spondylitis have mild episodes of back pain and stiffness that come and go. But others have severe, ongoing back pain and stiffness. Other symptoms also may develop if other areas of the body are affected

Sprains and Strains

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sprains-and-strains

What are sprains and strains? A sprain is an injury to a ligament (tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint). When a sprain happens, one or more ligaments is stretched or torn. A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon (fibrous cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone). In a strain, a muscle or tendon is stretched or torn.

Marfan Syndrome

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/marfan-syndrome

What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body’s ability to make healthy connective tissue, which supports the bones, muscles, organs, and tissues in your body. The condition can affect different areas of the body, including: Bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. Organs, such as the heart and lungs. Skin.

Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/heritable-disorders-connective-tissue

What are heritable disorders of connective tissue? There are more than 200 heritable disorders of connective tissue that can affect the tissues between the cells of your body that give tissues form and strength. All of these diseases are directly related to problems in genes that are responsible for building connective tissues. The disorders are called “heritable,” because they are passed on from parent to child. Some heritable disorders of connective tissue change the look and growth of skin, bones, joints, heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, and ears. Others change how these tissues work. Many, but not all, are rare