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類風濕性關節炎 健康主題 (Rheumatoid Arthritis)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis

何謂類風濕性關節炎? 類風濕性關節炎 是一種慢性(長期)疾病,大多數情況下影響關節,例如腕關節、手、腳、脊柱、膝蓋和下頜。類風濕性關節炎造成的炎症可導致關節: 疼痛。 腫脹。 僵直。 喪失功能。 因為是免疫系統攻擊健康的關節組織,類風濕性關節炎是一種自身免疫性疾病。正常情況下,免疫系統幫助保護身體免於發生感染和疾病。 類風濕性關節炎可能讓您感覺異常疲倦,偶爾會發燒,而且食欲下降。類風濕性關節炎還可能造成心、肺、血液、神經、眼睛和皮膚的其他醫療問題。 治療可以幫助患者過上充實的生活。

什麼是青春痘 (Acne)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/acne

什麼是痤瘡? 痤瘡是常見的皮膚狀況,是由皮膚下面的毛囊堵塞造成的。油脂和死亡的皮膚細胞堵住毛孔,可爆發皮膚病灶(通常稱為粉刺或青春痘)。爆發最常見於面部,但也可出現在背部、胸部和肩部。 大多數人的痤瘡通常會在三十多歲之前消失,但有些人到四十多歲和五十多歲時仍然還有這一皮膚問題

系統性紅斑狼瘡(狼瘡)健康主題 (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/lupus

何謂系統性紅斑狼瘡(狼瘡)? 系統性紅斑狼瘡(狼瘡)是一種慢性(長期)自身免疫性疾病,可影響多個身體部位,包括: 皮膚。 關節。 心臟。 肺。 腎臟。 大腦。 在正常情況下,免疫系統會幫助保護身體免於發生感染和疾病。但當發生狼瘡時,免疫系統攻擊自身組織。這樣的攻擊會造成炎症,而且在某些情況下會造成永久性的組織損傷。 如果您患有狼瘡,則您可能有時候發病(急性發作),有時候健康(緩解)。狼瘡急性發作時的程度可輕可重,而且也沒有一定的規律。但如果接受治療,許多狼瘡患者可以管理這一疾病。

異位性皮膚炎健康主題 (Atopic Dermatitis)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/atopic-dermatitis

何謂異位性皮膚炎? 異位性皮膚炎通常稱為濕疹。這是一種慢性(長期)疾病,造成皮膚炎症和刺激症狀,導致極度瘙癢。抓撓會引起: 發紅。 腫脹。 皸裂。 滲出透明液體。 結痂。 脫皮。 在大多數情況下,有時病情惡化(稱為急性發作),然後皮膚情況有所改善或症狀完全消失(稱為緩解)。 異位性皮膚炎是一種常見病症,任何人都可能患上。但異位性皮膚炎通常是在兒童期開始出現。異位性皮膚炎不會從一個人傳給另一個人。沒有人知道異位性皮膚炎的病因是什麼。根據症狀的嚴重程度,異位性皮膚炎患者的生活可能並不容易,但治療可幫助控制症狀。

Acne

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/acne

What is acne? Acne is a common skin condition that happens when hair follicles under the skin become clogged. Oil and dead skin cells plug the pores, and outbreaks of lesions (often called pimples or zits) can happen. Most often, the outbreaks occur on the face but can also appear on the back, chest, and shoulders. For most people, acne tends to go away by the time they reach their thirties, but some people in their forties and fifties continue to have this skin problem.

Sports Injuries

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sports-injuries

What are sports injuries? The term “sports injury” refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly happen during sports or exercise, such as sprains, strains, and stress fractures This health topic focuses on types of sports injuries that affect muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. There are several different types of sport injuries. The symptoms you have and your treatment depends on the type of injury. Most people recover and return to normal activities.

Growth Plate Injuries

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/growth-plate-injuries

What are growth plate injuries? The growth plate is the area of tissue near the ends of long bones in children and teens that determines what length and shape the bone will be once it is done growing. Each long bone— the thigh bone, the bones in the forearm, and the bones in the hands and fingers—has at least two growth plates, one at each end. Once your child has finished growing, the growth plates close and are replaced by solid bone. The growth plates are weak areas of your child’s growing skeleton, making it easier to injure them. Injuries

Paget’s Disease of Bone

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/pagets-disease-bone

What is Paget’s disease? Paget’s disease of bone is a chronic (long-lasting) disorder that causes bones to grow larger and become weaker than normal. Usually only one or a few bones have the disease. Many people with Paget’s disease do not have symptoms. However, the bone changes can cause: Bone pain. Misshapen bones. Broken bones (fractures). Problems in the joints near the bones with the disease. With treatment, many people can: Manage their symptoms. Improve pain. Control the effects of the disease.

Osteoporosis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoporosis

What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. This increases your risk of broken bones (fractures). Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease because you may not have symptoms. You may not even know you have the disease until you break a bone. Breaks can occur in any bone but happen most often in: Hip bones. Vertebrae in the spine. Wrist. You can take steps to help prevent osteoporosis and broken bones by: Doing weight-bearing exercises, such as walking or dancing, and lifting weights. Not drinking too much alcohol. Quitting smoking, or not starting if

Atopic Dermatitis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/atopic-dermatitis

What is atopic dermatitis? Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema, is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that causes the skin to become inflamed and irritated, making it extremely itchy. Scratching leads to: Redness. Swelling. Cracking. “Weeping” clear fluid. Crusting. Scaling. In most cases, there are times when the disease is worse, called flares, followed by times when the skin improves or clears up entirely, called remissions. Atopic dermatitis is a common condition, and anyone can get the disease. However, it usually begins in childhood. Atopic dermatitis cannot be spread from person to person. No one knows what causes atopic dermatitis. Depending on

Osteonecrosis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteonecrosis

What is osteonecrosis? Your bones are made up of living cells that need a blood supply to stay healthy. In osteonecrosis, blood flow to part of a bone is reduced. This causes death of bone tissue, and the bone can eventually break down and the joint will collapse. Osteonecrosis can happen to any bone, but most often it develops in the ends of long bones, such as the: Thigh bone. Upper arm bone. Less often, the bones of the elbows, ankles, feet, wrists, and hands are affected. When the disease involves part of a bone in a joint, it can

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/lupus

What is systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)? Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is a chronic (long-lasting) autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the: Skin. Joints. Heart. Lungs. Kidneys. Brain. Lupus happens when the immune system, which normally helps protect the body from infection and disease, attacks its own tissues. This attack causes inflammation and, in some cases, permanent tissue damage. If you have lupus, you may have times of illness (flares) and times of wellness (remission). Lupus flares can be mild to serious, and they do not follow a pattern. However, with treatment, many people with lupus

Gout

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/gout

What is gout? Gout is a type of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in your joints, usually as flares that last for a week or two, and then go away. Gout flares often begin in your big toe or a lower limb. Gout happens when high levels of a substance called serum urate build up in your body. When this happens, needle-shaped crystals form in and around the joint. This leads to inflammation and arthritis of the joint. However, many people with high levels of serum urate will not develop gout. With early diagnosis, treatment, and lifestyle changes, gout

Osteopetrosis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteopetrosis

What is osteopetrosis? Osteopetrosis is a rare disorder that causes bones to grow abnormally and become too dense. When this happens, bones can break easily. In addition, bones may be misshapen and large, causing other problems in the body, such as problems with: Seeing and hearing. Fighting infection. Controlling bleeding. Osteopetrosis is a genetic disease that a child inherits from their parents. The disorder may be mild to severe, and symptoms may show up early after birth or later in adulthood.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis

What is rheumatoid arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that mostly affects joints, such as the wrist, hands, feet, spine, knees, and jaw. In joints, RA causes inflammation that leads to: Pain. Swelling Stiffness. Loss of function. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder because the immune system attacks the healthy joint tissues. Normally, the immune system helps protect the body from infection and disease. RA may cause you to feel unusually tired, to have occasional fevers, and to have a loss of appetite. It also may cause other medical problems in the heart, lungs, blood, nerves, eyes