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類風濕性關節炎 健康主題 (Rheumatoid Arthritis)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis

何謂類風濕性關節炎? 類風濕性關節炎 是一種慢性(長期)疾病,大多數情況下影響關節,例如腕關節、手、腳、脊柱、膝蓋和下頜。類風濕性關節炎造成的炎症可導致關節: 疼痛。 腫脹。 僵直。 喪失功能。 因為是免疫系統攻擊健康的關節組織,類風濕性關節炎是一種自身免疫性疾病。正常情況下,免疫系統幫助保護身體免於發生感染和疾病。 類風濕性關節炎可能讓您感覺異常疲倦,偶爾會發燒,而且食欲下降。類風濕性關節炎還可能造成心、肺、血液、神經、眼睛和皮膚的其他醫療問題。 治療可以幫助患者過上充實的生活。

骨性關節炎 (Osteoarthritis)

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis

何謂骨關節炎? 骨關節炎是一種關節疾病,是指關節內的組織隨著時間的推移而分解。這是最常見的關節炎類型,而且更常見於年長者。 骨關節炎患者通常有關節疼痛,而且在休息之後有短時間的關節僵直(難以移動)。最常累及的關節包括: 手(手指末端和拇指的起點和末端)。 膝蓋。 髖部。 頸部。 腰部。 骨關節炎對每個人的影響都有所不同。對有些人來說,骨關節炎不影響日常活動。而對其他人而言,骨關節炎會造成劇烈疼痛和殘障。

Alopecia Areata

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/alopecia-areata

What is alopecia areata? Alopecia areata is a disease that causes hair loss. In alopecia areata, the immune system attacks the structures in skin that form hair (hair follicles). Alopecia areata usually affects the head and face, though hair can be lost from any part of the body. Hair typically falls out in small, round patches about the size of a quarter. In some cases, hair loss is more extensive.

Sports Injuries

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sports-injuries

What are sports injuries? The term “sports injury” refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly happen during sports or exercise, such as sprains, strains, and stress fractures This health topic focuses on types of sports injuries that affect muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. There are several different types of sport injuries. The symptoms you have and your treatment depends on the type of injury. Most people recover and return to normal activities.

Fibromyalgia

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/fibromyalgia

What is fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia is a long-lasting disorder that causes pain and tenderness throughout the body. It also can cause you to feel overly tired (fatigue) and have trouble sleeping. Doctors do not fully understand what causes fibromyalgia, but people with the disorder are more sensitive to pain.

Scoliosis in Children and Teens

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/scoliosis

What is scoliosis? Scoliosis is a sideways curve of the spine. Children and teens with scoliosis have an abnormal S-shaped or C-shaped curve of the spine. The curve can happen on either side of the spine and in different places in the spine. With treatment, observation, and follow-up with the doctor, most children and teens with scoliosis have normal, active lives.

Reactive Arthritis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/reactive-arthritis

What is reactive arthritis? Reactive arthritis happens when an infection causes joint pain and swelling. A bacterial infection in the digestive or urinary tract or the genitals usually triggers the condition, but arthritis symptoms typically do not start until a few weeks after you have recovered from the infection. The most common features of reactive arthritis are inflammation of the joints (especially the knees and ankles), eyes, and urinary tract, but not everyone gets all three, or they might not happen at the same time.

Osteoarthritis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoarthritis

What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that happens when the tissues in the joint break down over time. It is the most common type of arthritis and is more common in older people. People with osteoarthritis usually have joint pain and, after rest, stiffness (inability to move easily) for a short period of time. The most commonly affected joints include the: Hands (ends of the fingers and at the base and ends of the thumbs). Knees. Hips. Neck. Lower back. Osteoarthritis affects each person differently. For some people, osteoarthritis does not affect day-to-day activities. For others, it causes

Spinal Stenosis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/spinal-stenosis

What is spinal stenosis? Spinal stenosis happens when the spaces in the spine narrow and create pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that comes out of the base of the brain and runs down the center of the spine. The nerve roots branch out from the cord. In spinal stenosis, the narrowing usually occurs over time.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/rheumatoid-arthritis

What is rheumatoid arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that mostly affects joints, such as the wrist, hands, feet, spine, knees, and jaw. In joints, RA causes inflammation that leads to: Pain. Swelling Stiffness. Loss of function. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder because the immune system attacks the healthy joint tissues. Normally, the immune system helps protect the body from infection and disease. RA may cause you to feel unusually tired, to have occasional fevers, and to have a loss of appetite. It also may cause other medical problems in the heart, lungs, blood, nerves, eyes