何謂骨關節炎？ 骨關節炎是一種關節疾病，是指關節內的組織隨著時間的推移而分解。這是最常見的關節炎類型，而且更常見於年長者。 骨關節炎患者通常有關節疼痛，而且在休息之後有短時間的關節僵直（難以移動）。最常累及的關節包括： 手（手指末端和拇指的起點和末端）。 膝蓋。 髖部。 頸部。 腰部。 骨關節炎對每個人的影響都有所不同。對有些人來說，骨關節炎不影響日常活動。而對其他人而言，骨關節炎會造成劇烈疼痛和殘障。
What is gout? Gout is a type of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in your joints, usually as flares that last for a week or two, and then go away. Gout flares often begin in your big toe or a lower limb. Gout happens when high levels of a substance called serum urate build up in your body. When this happens, needle-shaped crystals form in and around the joint. This leads to inflammation and arthritis of the joint. However, many people with high levels of serum urate will not develop gout. With early diagnosis, treatment, and lifestyle changes, gout
What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that happens when the tissues in the joint break down over time. It is the most common type of arthritis and is more common in older people. People with osteoarthritis usually have joint pain and, after rest, stiffness (inability to move easily) for a short period of time. The most commonly affected joints include the: Hands (ends of the fingers and at the base and ends of the thumbs). Knees. Hips. Neck. Lower back. Osteoarthritis affects each person differently. For some people, osteoarthritis does not affect day-to-day activities. For others, it causes
What is osteonecrosis? Your bones are made up of living cells that need a blood supply to stay healthy. In osteonecrosis, blood flow to part of a bone is reduced. This causes death of bone tissue, and the bone can eventually break down and the joint will collapse. Osteonecrosis can happen to any bone, but most often it develops in the ends of long bones, such as the: Thigh bone. Upper arm bone. Less often, the bones of the elbows, ankles, feet, wrists, and hands are affected. When the disease involves part of a bone in a joint, it can
What is Raynaud’s phenomenon? Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition that causes the blood vessels in the hands and feet to narrow, decreasing blood flow. When this happens, parts of the body—usually the fingers and toes—become cold and numb, and change color (usually, to white or blue). An attack usually happens from exposure to cold or stress.
What is vitiligo? Vitiligo is a chronic (long-lasting) disorder that causes areas of skin to lose color. When skin cells that make color are attacked and destroyed, the skin turns a milky-white color. No one knows what causes vitiligo, but it may be an autoimmune disease. In people with autoimmune diseases, the immune cells attack the body’s own healthy tissues by mistake, instead of viruses or bacteria. A person with vitiligo sometimes may have family members who also have the disease. There is no cure for vitiligo, but treatment may help skin tone appear more even.
What are polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis? Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis are closely linked inflammatory disorders. Some people have one of the disorders while others develop both of them. Polymyalgia rheumatica causes muscle pain and stiffness in the shoulders, upper arms, hip area, and sometimes the neck. Giant cell arteritis causes inflammation of arteries, especially those on each side of the head, scalp, and the aorta (the large artery that carries blood from the heart) and its main branches. The main symptoms of this disorder are: Headaches. Scalp tenderness. Jaw pain. Problems with your eyes, which may
What is atopic dermatitis? Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema, is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that causes the skin to become inflamed and irritated, making it extremely itchy. Scratching leads to: Redness. Swelling. Cracking. “Weeping” clear fluid. Crusting. Scaling. In most cases, there are times when the disease is worse, called flares, followed by times when the skin improves or clears up entirely, called remissions. Atopic dermatitis is a common condition, and anyone can get the disease. However, it usually begins in childhood. Atopic dermatitis cannot be spread from person to person. No one knows what causes atopic dermatitis. Depending on
何謂異位性皮膚炎？ 異位性皮膚炎通常稱為濕疹。這是一種慢性（長期）疾病，造成皮膚炎症和刺激症狀，導致極度瘙癢。抓撓會引起： 發紅。 腫脹。 皸裂。 滲出透明液體。 結痂。 脫皮。 在大多數情況下，有時病情惡化（稱為急性發作），然後皮膚情況有所改善或症狀完全消失（稱為緩解）。 異位性皮膚炎是一種常見病症，任何人都可能患上。但異位性皮膚炎通常是在兒童期開始出現。異位性皮膚炎不會從一個人傳給另一個人。沒有人知道異位性皮膚炎的病因是什麼。根據症狀的嚴重程度，異位性皮膚炎患者的生活可能並不容易，但治療可幫助控制症狀。