What are autoinflammatory diseases?

Autoinflammatory diseases refer to problems with the immune system, which usually fights off viruses, bacteria, and infection. The problem causes your immune cells to attack your body by mistake. This can cause swelling that produces fever, rash, joint swelling, or serious buildup of a blood protein in your organs.

What are the types of autoinflammatory diseases?

Some examples of autoinflammatory disease and their symptoms include:

  • Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), which can cause:
    • Fever that comes and goes.
    • Stomach pain.
    • Arthritis.
    • Chest pain.
    • Skin rashes.
  • Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) occurs in children during the first six weeks in life. It can cause:
    • Rash.
    • Fever.
    • Swelling in the lining of the brain.
    • Joint damage.
    • Vision loss.
    • Hearing loss.
    • Mental retardation.
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) is associated with:
    • High fevers.
    • Pain in the stomach, chest, or joints.
    • Skin rash.
    • Swelling in or around the eyes.
  • Deficiency of the Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (DIRA) can cause the following serious conditions in children:
    • Swelling of bone tissue.
    • Bone pain and deformity.
    • Swelling of the tissues around the bones.
    • Skin rash that can cover most of the body.
  • Behçet’s disease can cause the following symptoms:
    • Mouth or genital sores.
    • Redness and swelling in the eyes.
    • Arthritis.
    • Skin problems.
    • Swelling of the digestive system, brain, and spinal cord.
  • Chronic Atypical Neutrophilic Dermatosis With Lipodystrophy and Elevated Temperature (CANDLE) can include the following symptoms, which generally develop during the first year of life:
    • Recurrent fevers.
    • Purple or red spots on the skin caused by burst blood vessels (purpura).
    • Joint pain.
    • Permanent shortening of a muscle or joint (contracture).
    • Developmental delay.
    • Facial changes, including a loss of fat on the face, and swollen lips and eyelids.

What causes autoinflammatory diseases?

Autoinflammatory diseases are typically caused by changes in certain genes. This causes problems with proteins that are important in specific body functions. For some diseases, the cause is unknown.